Unity in Diversity versus Diversity in Unity


By Messay Kebede

In an article titled “The Question of Unity: Do Words Matter?,” Maimire Mennasemay exposed the poison wrapped in the TPLF’s {www:catchphrase} “unity in diversity.” His insightful analysis reveals that the slogan is “diversity-centric,” in that it gives primacy to ethnic identities and conceives of unity as an {www:agglomeration} of sovereign and static ethnic groups. As an assemblage of diverse entities, unity is less the overcoming of fragmentation than the political consecration of its artificiality.

Worse yet, so conceived, unity becomes “inherently inimical to democracy.” Because it freezes divisions, it promotes the politics of divide-and-rule that is so characteristic of dictatorial regimes. It also hampers the development of universal norms, by which people assert their common interests, beyond ethnic particularisms, and come together, thereby perceiving unity as the realization of their common aspirations. With an acuminous grasp, Maimire shows how the imperial regime, the Derg, and the EPRDF have used different strategies to achieve a similar goal, namely, the coagulation of ethnicity, either through rejection or consolidation, so as “to implement their divide-and-exploit policies.” After all, whether ethnicity is accepted or rejected, in both cases it is set against unity.

Instead of “unity in diversity,” Maimire proposes the formula “diversity in unity,” which, he says, is “unity-centric” and, as such, friendly to democratic developments. Indeed, the suggested formulation no longer seeks the petrification of ethnic identities; rather, it promotes unity through the development of norms transcending particularisms. Not only does it thus give primacy to unity, but it also turns unity into the framework of diversity. It does not obtain an artificial gathering by reducing unity to a mere sum of diverse entities; on the contrary, it lays out a diversified, rainbow-like unity, as opposed to conglomerate unity. In the rainbow-like unity, the parts belong to the same unity and are in solidarity with one another, unlike the conglomerate unity, which is composed of heterogeneous entities that remain distinct as oil and water.

While conglomerate unity is perfectly propitious to a divide-and-rule policy, given that a hegemonic center becomes necessary to keep together the heterogeneous entities, the spectral quality of a diversified unity accentuates fellowship and solidarity, and so replaces divisive politics with the pursuit of consensus. In such a union, a hegemonic force becomes superfluous, since diversity becomes a component, an expression of unity rather than an entity in an artificial assemblage. Where people are united by common interests and traits, they resent divisive and dictatorial rule.

My own contribution suggests that Maimire’s analysis contains more than a prescription, an ought-to-be; it is also quite reflective of modern Ethiopian history. The beginning was unity rather than diversity. The ethnic problem of Ethiopia presupposes the territorial unity achieved by Menelik’s expansion and the consolidation of the Ethiopian state under Haile Selassie. Prior to the expansion and integration into the Ethiopian empire, most southern peoples lived under tribal organizations that significantly fell short of being nations, still less nation-states. By contrast, the northern part of modern Ethiopia had developed the sense of being a nation through a long history of unity under an organized state.

When the north conquered and integrated the south, a territorial unity was achieved, but which was fraught with deep contradictions, since it immediately took a hegemonic form. In addition to marginalizing the representatives of the southern peoples, the conquerors appropriated their land and implemented a policy of assimilation that was insensitive to their cultural legacy. And as the competition for scarce resources intensified with the process of modernization, the educated elites of the southern peoples and those of Tigray and Eritrea responded to the hegemony of Amhara ruling elite by increasingly rejecting unity and construing themselves as representatives of oppressed or “colonized” nations. Clearly, the historical reality does not show a movement from diversity to unity; rather, it displays the process of diversity emerging from unity as a result of hegemonic practices. Diversity is thus a posterior creation, not an initial point of departure, as suggested by the expression “unity in diversity.”

Unlike “unity in diversity,” which is an attempt to rewrite history by changing an outcome into a beginning, “diversity in unity” acknowledges the movement toward diversity. By conceptualizing diversity as the product of elite conflicts caused by hegemonic practices, it naturally sees it as bifurcation or divergence, which can become the basis of democratic unity, provided that it is not solidified by detrimental ideologies, notably by ethnonationalist beliefs. Ethiopia would thus evolve from territorial unity to democratic unity via bifurcation or internal differentiation. Differentiation is a mediation in the process of transition from imposed unity to diversified unity.

It is important that Ethiopian forces opposing ethnonationalist ideologies adopt the principle of “diversity in unity.” In so doing, they emphasize unity while integrating diversity in such a way that it is no longer antithetical to unity. Better still, by converting diversity into a construct triggered by elite conflicts, they counter its hypostatization, whose consequence is that diversity is approached as a political problem liable of a democratic solution, and not as a primordial attribute that is refractory to a sub-unit status. To say that diversity grew out of unity maintains the integrity of the whole, whereas the opposite, that is, the generation of unity from initial dispersion at best obtains a collection, which certainly does not amount to a nation.

(Dr Messay Kebede can be reached at Messay.Kebede@notes.udayton.edu)


24 thoughts on “Unity in Diversity versus Diversity in Unity

  1. Good Man on

    There are surely positive and good points in the article but yet interestingly it is also a typical Ethiopian academician writing style with much ado about nothing and hairsplitting as to whether a half glass of water can better be described as half full or half empty or an Ethiopian Zebra stripes can be characterized as black on white background or white on black background.

    In terms of Ethiopian politics and generally speaking what is needed is justice for all in the form of genuine and equal distribution of power between all the contesting parties. Ethnic, cultural, etc.

    In a multinational state like Ethiopia, ethnicity and all the other forms of diversities are the building blocks (parts) that forms the whole (Ethiopia). Talking only or mainly about the abstract whole while forgetting all the particular parts is ONLY good for self serving tyrants who bake a good looking cake, cut it in to ten pieces and eat all the divided pieces by themselves alone, like the cunning tplf is currently doing.

    Any building whether a state or an apartment building need to start from the base, part by part, color by color, individual brick by individual brick and then arrive at the harmonious whole. You draw the whole building on paper and even make a model, but you can never start building from the roof downwards. In the middle of the whirlwind there can not be any peace without the much needed justice for all.

  2. Nagaasoo on

    Ato Mesay,
    As far as the Oromo people and their liberation front (OLF) are concerned, you can promote the type of unity you suggested. But be sure that the language in to which we all need to MELT will be Afaan Oromo, not your beloved Amharinya. The third-generation OLF is supporting your view, if you agree with this language issue.

    By the way, is Nagaasso Gidadaa’s UDJ party not one of those OLFites with the mentality of the third-generation OLF? When we look to the program of the party, its §3.2.4 says: “Amharic shall serve as a working language of the federal state. When approved by a referendum, there can be another language, in addition to Amharic, that serves as a working language of the federal state.”

    Why did Obbo Nagaassoo and other Oromo in this party fail to put Afaan Oromo to be one of the federal working languages explicitely, just as they did to Amharinya? Are they not making the same mistake made by Emperor Minilik Caalaa and his best general Gobanaa Daacee? Both of them being Oromo (the first one Abyssinized Oromo, the second one non-Abyssinized), they could have made Afaan Oromo the working language of the Ethiopian empire they built, instead of making their “Lisane Negus”, aka Amharinya, the only one used officially in the empire!

    Now, the OLF movments should take heed of the Habesha organizations like the UDJ and G-7, who want to repeat the same mistake! No other move except the following three ways is acceptable by the Oromo people:

    – The first-generation OLF, who is concentrating on achieving only an ‘Independent Oromia’, as a fair goal without influencing other nations,

    – The second-generation talking about either an ‘Independent Oromia’ or an ‘Imperious Oromia’, the latter usually being put as an autonomous Oromia, but the intention is to have the type of sovereiginity, which the Tigreans now do have; i.e an ‘Independent Tigrai’ ruling over the other “autonomous” national areas. Can Oromia be so independent and rule over the others?

    – The third-generation being more inclusive and open for an ‘Independent Oromia’, for an ‘Imperious Oromia’ and for an ‘Integrative Oromia’, the last one being the same type of sovereignity which the Amhara used to have till 1991, i.e having the central power and making Amharinya the centeral major language. Can Oromos have the central power and make Afaan Oromo the major language?

    I think these three options of our future walabummaa/sovereignity are not bad, but the question lies on the timing of stressing one of the alternatives in comparison to the other two. Clear is that any nation under oppression and with a threatened security prefers and stresses ‘independence’, whereas the nation, which does have a confidence to survive, to thrive and who even is sure to be able to rule over other nations do emphasize the other two alternatives, i.e the ‘autonomy’ and ‘integration’.

    We may ask: which position should the Oromo people, who are still under the colony and domination need to emphasize now? Surely, we need to stress an ‘independence’, just as the first-generation OLF correctly did and is still doing. Even though it is not bad that the second-generation accepted a possible ‘autonomy’ (imperious position)as an option and the third-generation now started to furhter entertain even the third alternative of ‘integrative’ Oromia, the smart side of all the three generations is that they never gave up and will never give up the ‘independence’ option!

    As long as the Oromo people are under oppression, the question for an ‘independence’ is mandatory and a must! But care must be taken for this position is used by the Woyane cadres as a means to neutralize the pro-integration Amhara forces, who are also nowadays the archenemies of the Woyane. Woyane is surviving and thriving by making these Amhara forces and the pro-independence Oromo fronts neutralize each other.

  3. Anonymous on

    This is a marvelous piece of writing from Professor Mesay Kebede, written with in-depth look at the politics of unity and diversity. I appreciate Professor Mesay’s initiative which opens a wider horizon in the political sphere. EPRDF’s pipeline view of diversity/ethnicity as being an inert quantitty that determines the fate of every thing in Ethiopia is at best a self-destructive philosophy. If there is no unity, even one’s neighbour becomes an enemy. The process of assimilation of individuals in to a unifying culture, civilisation, norms and modern day state/country is a social evolution that withstood the test of time and one that must not be put on reverse gear. It is a social achievement on which socities (with time) try to build up an even better society. EPRDF is actively engaged in the politics of erosion of the social fabric of the society. In that it resembles the alien, colonial divide and rule policy that even to this day is the cause of ethnic conflicts and genocides around the world. Cynicism is strongly implicated in EPRDF’s ethnic politics exercised on Ethiopian people and Ethiopia as a country which is universally and justifiably regarded as a symbol of black independence, freedom and statehood. The experiment of recreating ethiopia as an ethnic fragment is an insult to our intelligence, the motive of which is well aligned with the spectrum of the top social evils of the century. Meles as the cheif architect of all this will remembered in history for this destructive social experiment in the same page with Hitler, Musoloni and other dreadful evils.

  4. Gobena on

    Nagaasoo,

    Why is it that OLF continue,on the one hand,to denegrate the history of Ethiopia,attack the term Ethiopia,and on the other hand, OLF continue to perptuate false history and image for her followers.OLF ellits are siply imposing their will upon the people of Oromo when they demnand full alligiance of all Oromos to embrace their cause with out question.For instance,in the past OLF has adapted Latin alphabet for Oromo language insetad of indignious alphabets, it did this with out any regard to the interest of the diverse(in religion ,geography) Oromo people.Does unelected OLF has any right to tie on the neck of Oromos a milstone and force them to adopt a new alpahbet?I don’t think so.Now I dont opose a political partyy or the people if they chose to replace andy term that they felt has become insultint to them.Neverthless,I have problem when a political party such as OLF choses to adapt Oromo instead of Gall only to advance her political gain.For instace,Galla refers to the people,Galigna referes to the language but one can’t drive a TERRITORIAL NAME FROM THIS TERM.On the other hand,the use of the term Oromo refers to the people,Afan Oromo to the language,and OLF convinently can drive OROMIA AS A TERRITORIAL NAME.The question is how can it be acceptable for OLF to invent and reinvent the cultural context of its people as in the above;And this is being accepted as true history and jenuine make up of the peeople of Oromo? It is avery sad state of affair for the elit OLF leaders to demand the people a transfer of custodianship so that OLF alone cand decide what is best for the people.Each one of us have one life to live ;why should it be permitted for OLF or any elit organization to assume guardianship over the life of the entire socity? It is true the problem of our people including the Oromos can be solved when the right of each individual is respected.The right to vote ,to movement,to pursue happiness, to aspire.Individual freedom is our gift from our maker;it need not be relegated to any organization or entity istead each citizen must be its inheritor.Past experiance shows OLF does not allow room for independent choice of the people of Oromos in which OLF it claims is representing.OLF ellits like to impose their will upon the masses. The reason the elites of OLF cling to the notion of liberation is because they like to be super boss to their clan.They want to tell them what they must do,where to go,if need be to shut up and not say any thing at all.Inother words they demand absolute obiedence from their own this is slavery and not freedom.

  5. Shanko Ujulu on

    #3.Anonymous,

    May I say that you are lying from the toe of your feet up to the tip of your head when you saying, “The process of assimilation of individuals in to a unifying culture, civilisation, norms and modern day state/country is a social evolution that withstood the test of time and one that must not be put on reverse gear. It is a social achievement on which socities (with time) try to build up an even better society.”

    In reality the contrary is exactly the truth because the question is NOT about individual assimilation but the conquest and forced assimilation of an entirely whole nations, nationalities and cultures, identities, personalities, and then forcefully undressing the entire composite entities, languages, values, names of places, towns, trees, persons, etc. in to the conquerors/enslaver’s value systems. This actually is the alien colonial conquest and assimilation policy of domination.

    Yes, Ethiopia has been regarded as a symbol of black independence and statehood for the conquering Chauvinist Amhara elites but absolutely remained to be a symbol of BRUTAL oppression, conquest and slavery for the majority of its citizens as well as none citizens in that empire and the surrounding areas.

    Menelik’s grand colonial state system is only some 120 years old while the Ethiopia of previous era represents completely a different entity. Ever since, Ethiopia has always been based on unequal ethnic composition, meaning entirely exclusive Amhara ethnic dictatorship up until 1991 and then Tigre dictatorship from 1991 up to now. Keep pumping your chest and lying big but you can not fool any one any more!

    Yes, tplf is directly and indirectly tyrannizing any none Tigrian Ethiopians including Amhras too but they did not create ethnicity and diversity as you conveniently and self servingely try to fool us and insult our intelligence even during this 21srst century of enlightenment just like the bygone 18th century of the fools. Please DON’T hate Meles so much for for the wrong thing, that is to say, liberating the enslaved Tigrians but better hate him for enslaving the other Ethiopians. Get this point deep down in to your over programmed hard skull!

    I hope that your TIGHTLY OVER FIXED AND ONE DIMENSIONAL MIND may understand the difference between liberating Tigrians but enslaving other Ethiopians. There is a great difference between the tow!

    Mind you that I am NOT an Oromo or an Amhara but only a concerned Ethiopian. Okay?

  6. Melaku Bogale on

    #4.Gobena,

    Nagaasoo answers for himself but let me ask you as a forum participant to turn your own question around and ask as to why the those who conquered and forcefully captured the Oromos are imposing their own language, culture, religion, traditions, etc. by unilateral dictatorial forces alone thereby further imposing their entire cultural and linguistic system on the cultured, democratic Oromos having their own values, traditions, language, advanced democratic system of governance.

    Why the Oromos want to take back their liberty, culture,language, identity and freedom can simply be answered by the first set of questions in the first paragraph. What is an ingeniousness language Mr. Gobena? Oromo mother tongue for Oromos or Amhara mother tongue for Oromos? Shameless banda!

  7. Tebaber on

    Actually it’s a false choice as far as Ethiopia is concerned. There is no such thing as diversity in unity unless we seek to revive Ethiopia’s former oppressive state structure which seems to be the central thesis of Massay’s writing. Unity in diversity, certainly yes if we want to maintain the territorial unity of what is left of Ethiopia. But the prevailing, Woyane established, status quo may not be tenable nor does it necessarily provide an ideal solution to Ethiopia’s problem. But it’s imperative to craft a structural arrangement that can address the demographic realities of Ethiopia. We are unanimous in rejecting Woyane’s hidden agenda of divide and rule via the kilils, which does not of course mean a continued denial of the rights of distinct groups, notably the Oromos. It is clear from a great deal of Habasha polemics there is the intention to equate Oromo national righs with Woyane politics and ergo the urge to wrap up the two together and throw them out the window. What hasn’t unfortunately dawned on a lot of my Amhara brothers as yet is the fact that the longer we postpone or simply ignore the nationalities (or gosa, call it whatever you want) problem the more we’re contributing to the existence of the Woyane. It’s their last card albeit their strongest card. They have emerged as the true guardians of Ethiopia’s strategic unity by fighting of Oromo narrow nationalists on the left and Amhara national chauvinists on the right and have succeeded to sell it to the West to a large extent. We have to be able to nullify that in practical terms and win the middle ground in order to successfully displace them. Hence the urgent need for a viable alternative.

  8. Anonymous on

    Dear Shanko Ojulu:

    First of all your thought is cluttered with hate. you blabber dimensional while your whole writing is stuck on blaming the entire amhara, tigre for the past rule. Do not quote ethiopia’s stance as a symbol of black independence out of context for it has a wider meaning than your gutter thoughts. Get out of the box of ethnicising every thing that stands on your way. If you think assimilation is not a reality look at amharas and how diverse they are, look at oromos, the mechas and tulemas and how diverse and in your gutter-dimension diametrically opposite they can be. Where in the world state formed without assimilation? Focusing on characterisation of ethiopia as a conquering of chauvinist amhara is a well known anti ethiopia slogan used ad infinitum to saw havoc and disintegration of ethiopia as a state. It is tired and boring, banda music. So if you are anti-ethiopian you have the right to do so but you will not succeed for the pro-unity forces are greater and more powerful than the few resentful and neo-colonial nmissionaries and bandas of your likes.

  9. Visitor on

    Yedebere’w Diaspora: Yegodelegn gedelegn
    Yagodelegn asgedelegn

    Debert II: Ay wendmie…
    B’edif lie gudif
    B’enkirrt lie Joro Degif

    Yemisirach: I killed ya’ll.

  10. Shanko Ujulu on

    “8.Anonymous,

    Don’t get MAD at the good Shanko Ujulu simply because I am trying to bring my views in to the public for the common good for all but NOT only for you perhaps trying to sell A PIG IN A CLOSED DARK PLASTIC BAG.

    Additionally, I am not opposing the healthy and peaceful process of multidimensional assimilation as such but opposing the one sided imposition of entirely dictatorial assimilation by tyrannical criminal dictators using gun power. Mind you Hitlers and neo Nazi assimilation ideas and Nelson Mandela’s or other democratic government’s method of peaceful assimilation are entirely different both in its process and the whole outcome. Healthy and democracy based fair assimilation MUST NOT BE UNIDIRECTION but MULTIDIRECTIONAL where diverse citizens freely interact and influence each others social, economic, political, cultural,etc. variables with out the tyrannical manipulations and forceful impositions by unrepresentative and undemocratic self serving corner brutes.

    I am NOT at all anti Ethiopian, neither anti assimilation but I am anti tyranny and anti dictatorship for which all the Ethiopian leaders through out historical times have been very much known for until this very moment. But I am totally for the new democratic Ethiopia where all forms of government and governance are democratically decided through fair and good governance as well as justice for all, including the so called assimilation.

    I am writing only for the purpose of finding satisfactory solution for our problems both in Ethiopia as well as in the whole horn rather than drumming hard and braying “Ethiopia, Ethiopia, Ethiopia…” in order to recommend the same old impotent pills that does not cure any disease other than make us feel good for a moment. Change is what we all need and that change needs to be new for the new and strong Ethiopia.

  11. Anonim on

    #7.Tebaber,

    I stand behind what you said 101%. Thank you for stating the winning strategy that will bring the much needed change we yearning for.

    እንተባበር ጎበዝ!

  12. Gobena on

    Melaku Bogale,
    I am sorry that you took offence at my comments; I don’t see myself as you referred me as ‘shameless Banda”.

    The question you raised is completely unrelated to the thought I expressed in the previous post. I will summarize the central theme of the previous message. Why does the OLF continue to belittle the history of Ethiopia, attack the name Ethiopia itself claiming that everything about that country is based on myth on the one hand, and on the other it continue to adopt new images or redress itself with a borrowed so ciao cultural garb or adopt new invented term for her territory, and attempt t impose the same upon her followers? That is the essence of my message. If some members of OLF attack Ethiopian history on what bases or what standard do they use to justify their claim? .Neverthles, even though the question you raised is not related to my points, I will try to answer them in the order you raised them.

    “Why the who conquered and forcefully captured the Oromos are imposing their own language, culture, religion, traditions, etc. by unilateral dictatorial forces alone thereby further imposing their entire cultural and linguistic system…”
    Even before TPLF seized power the question of language and culture especially religion was a matter entirely left to each individual to chose and practice. I argue People who are eager of identifying with their language, who are bold and won’t yield to social pressure always identify themselves with their own culture and language etc.Not so much by force but largely on their own volition individuals within societies evolve to the culture around them. What is more during Dreg there was also preparation underway to settle this issue for all time. After TPLF took power this question has been settled, and no Ethiopian I know will want to reverse what is already working for the people. I expect those who discuss issues to be honest; one can’t say OLF is not attacking Ethiopian history with impunity.

    “What is an ingeniousness language Mr. Gobena?”
    You miss quote me on this one. What I have said there is this.OLF is proud of identifying itself Cushitic race, to the point where it feels Northern Ethiopians Habeshas or Abissinyans.Such being the case about her cultural identification it will make much sense for her to adopt Indigenous alphabet than to borrow Latin alphabet.

  13. Liberty on

    Dear Editor,
    I am a simple citizen who believes in diversified, unified democratised Ethiopia [Not minding which one comes frist semantically]. I took pleasure of reading what my fellow country men posted on your page.
    Nicely written provocative eassy as expected from mature scholar [though I may differe in my stand]. Interesting comments. Realy nice analyses. But I hated the resonance of some of the comments because they reflect our “waring ” nature. These debates are really important. From the clash of ideas emerge the truth. Some one must be taking note of these. Civil debate is what is missing in our society. Every thing heeds to verbal waring and eventually to real waring. Perhaps it is high time to air our grieviances in an educated way,including essays, find a common ground and hammer out a lasting solution all inclusive before we face our enemy in substantial way.
    God bless Ethiopia

  14. gabaldoon on

    I am shocked how frank the discussion is here. I mean this is progress. No more ethnic tabloidism. As to the topic at hand, diversity is not something that can be blamed on some group or regime. it is there and it has been there for thousands of years. I mean, people are so different that they speak completely different languages. That takes a long time to develop. It means that these people have been separate ethnic groups long before there were kingdoms or countries. The great ethiopian country has been tried and it has failed everyone. In my opinion it is time to trust the Africans for once and ask them what they want. Unity through freedom is a better choice.

  15. Oneg on

    According to the discussion going on nowadays in the Oromo nationalists’ circle, there are three possible forms of walabummaa Oromiya (three types of sovereignities for Oromia) in the future:

    – Amhara style sovereignity: an ‘integrative Oromia’ having a free development of Afaan Oromo and its use at a federal level, as well as a cushitic Ethiopia being a sovereign Biyya Oromo, which will assimilate the other neighbouring language groups into being Oromo, thus practically Oromia = Ethiopia,

    – Tigrai style sovereignity: an ‘imperious Oromia’, i.e the Oromo people having an independent Oromia and at the same time ruling over the other neighbour nations,

    – Eritrean style sovereignity: an ‘independent Oromia’ as a separate nation-state, free from the other neighbour nations.

    All these three ways, which are now persued by the OLF are not disadvantageous for Oromia and the Oromo. That is why the futile cry of the Woyane cadres, who do lament day and night singing about their “fact” that OLF is a “secessionist” organization doesn’t hold water.

  16. Assta B. Gettu on

    Nagaasoo #2,

    The Oromos are the Ethiopians and the Ethiopians are the Oromos, and when you want to dissolve the marriage between Oromia and Ethiopia, you are creating a big problem for the two married couple. According to your judgment, is the divorce going to be a no-fault divorce because of the irreconcilable differences between the two? I don’t think you know what kind of divorce it will be. I will tell you right now; it will be a bloody divorce that you will regret for starting it.

    Oromia and Ethiopia have lived together for many years without one overbearing the other. Your ambition is, however, very clear that you want to be the overlord of the Oromo people by splitting Oromia from Ethiopia. You want to split the marriage because you don’t want to see Oromia expressing herself in the Amharic language. You want to see Oromia conversing with you in Afaan Orominga, a crude, noncommercial, non political, non religious and non social language.

    You have tried for over 30 years to demote the Amharic language and to promote your Afaan Orominga, but most Oromos rejected your ambitious plan to liberate Oromia from Ethiopia. All Ethiopians are united against your divisive plans. I wish you were dead with those17 Ethiopian Amhara Freedom Fighters whom OLF betrayed and brought them to end their precious lives in Asmara. You destroyed 17 Amhara freedom fighters because you could not compete with them and you could not get the leaderships they had through their hard work. In the same way, you want to destroy the Oromo people by creating hostility between the Oromos and the other Ethiopian tribes.

    Based on your visceral thinking, you have listed three things for Oromia:

    1. Independent Oromia
    2. Autonomous Oromia
    3. Integrative Oromia

    No one impedes you from hallucinating, and none of your three provocative plans will work for Oromia because Oromia is in good hand as she remains in Ethiopia.

    You wrote without having a second thought: “As long as the Oromo people are under oppression, the question for‘independence’ is mandatory and a must!” You are the one under the oppression of hanger for power, not the good Oromo people, and it is indeed mandatory for you to be free from terrorist action and from slaughtering the Oromo young boys and young girls. You have done your dirtiest work, allying yourself with Ethiopia’s historical enemies, the Egyptian Muslims. Your number one ally, Colonel Kaddafi is gone; what are you going to do to achieve your sinister goal – to disintegrate Ethiopia?

    You simple minded person; you think Obbo Nagaassoo and his coworkers did a miserable job for making Amharic the national language and for recognizing Afaan Oromo as a local language. They really did a noble job, and the Oromo people, except you, the bastard, love them as they always love Gobanaa Daacee and many others like him. Are you better than those Oromo heroes who knew what was good for the Oromo people and wanted Oromia to stay with Ethiopia for ever and ever?

    You suggest if the first generation fails to bring independence to Oromia, the second generation will, and if the second generation fails, the third generation will. You do not know what kind of second and third generation Oromia will bring? You will not be here until the third generation. You will be gone by then, and it is much, much, better for Oromia that you have disappeared without any trace. I hear there is a lot of tergiversation in the OLF movement, and I am sure you will, sooner or later, leave the OLF misguided organization.

  17. gora on

    My God don’t kill me before i see Some oromo scholars who are multidimensional and full of wisdom as their Amhara counterparts.
    Not blinded with inferiority complex and hate.

  18. Garo on

    What alternative? What I see is the brutal woyane and equally brutal Derg elites who are trying to revive the old system even some with nostalgic ferver fo emperor’s time to return.

  19. Melese Mengistu Haileselase on

    Just you all looks too eager to see your people (ethinically or individually) live in a country or region /state get freedom,democrac,.very interestingly you all are too concerned ….let me put my vision for ethiopian peace,freedom democracy…………….what is UNITY and DIVERSITY…… 1. The unity needed in ethiopia is physical ,mental,social …….what makes must for a country to focus on unity in diversity or vis versa ……I alwas wonder why only Amhara people or their ideology mental slaves cries for ‘UNITY IN ETHIOPIA’ what about other great ethinic groups such as Oromo,tigre ,afar,somale,gambela,benshangul…etc have their own organization of libration front…..is it deu their poor concept of united ethiopia? Becouse they are uncivilized like amharas…or..the hate the word Unity…..why amharas always tells us the only solution for ethiopian problem is unity….. ”unity is strength” who hate this proverb….. I believe that Amhara people’s has got something favour from unity…and they are crying not to loose their ancester’s colonia territory in south…cultural dominancy in the country…..this the key to their desire in united Ethiopia….in reality they use word unity as a condom for not to touch diversity. Any ways ..for all ethiopian’s…..When Amhara’s say UNITY OF ETHIOPIA They mean UNITY OF AMHARA…..When they say’ One ethiopia’ ..they mean ‘one amhara’….for your information I’m half amhara’

  20. Abaa'o on

    According to the OLF mission, we make NO compromise on Bilisummaa, but give priority to a Union; and if this fails, we opt for Independence: “The Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) is a political organization established in 1973 by Oromo nationalists to lead the national liberation struggle of the Oromo people against the Abyssinian colonial rule. The emergence of the OLF was a culmination of a century old yearn of the Oromo people to have a strong and unified national organization to lead the struggle. The fundamental objective of the Oromo liberation movement is to exercise the Oromo peoples’ inalienable right to national self-determination to terminate a century of oppression and exploitation, and to form, where possible, a political union with other nations on the basis of equality, respect for mutual interests and the principle of voluntary associations. The Oromo people’s quest for their right to self-determination is just and legitimate. The aspiration of the people to regain their fundamental freedom is in line with the principle enshrined in the charter of the UNO. The OLF is struggling to enable the Oromo people to realize this fundamental right and bring an end to century old oppression. OLF’s commitment to this objective is based on a democratic principle, that the Oromo people are endowed with the right to decide the type of sovereignty they want to live under and the type of political union they want to form with other peoples. The change made by the Tigrean regime, that grabbed power from the Amhara rulers in 1991, is far from enabling the Oromo people and others to realize this fundamental right. It is merely a cosmetic change intended to affect the momentum of our just struggle. The OLF reiterates the struggle of the Oromo people is not directed against any people but the system of oppression. In fact the OLF and the Oromo people are committed to the noble cause of laying a foundation for union of free peoples on the basis of their freely expressed will.”

  21. Gadaasa on

    A bad news for the Woyane hegemonists like Asta B. Getu and a good news for the freedom fighters is that all the opposition groups are uniting to get rid of the blood suckers! According to the hitherto discussion in Ethiopian/Oromian forums, all pro-freedom and pro-democracy forces in the Ethiopian empire are doing the bidding of the OLF against the Woyane. We just can say that OLF has got:

    – a left wing (pro-integration) forces like the AEUP, UDJ, G-7, EPRP and UEDF-diaspora
    – a middle body (pro-autonomy) forces like the ATSD, OFDM, SDAF, OPC, and UEDF-home
    – a right wing (pro-independence) forces like the BPLM, ONLF, GPLM, ULFO and SLF

    These all parties are considered as the part and parcel of the Oromo Liberation Movement, which is slowly but surely killing the Abyssinian system of domination and will definetly replace it with the Oromian system of democracy, be it that Oromia will have its sovereignty in a form of an ‘independent Oromia’, or an ‘autonomous Oromia’ or an ‘integrative Oromia’. Simply put, Woyane is cornered by the freedom movement of the gadaa people in all directions!

  22. oromow on

    To Gora:
    Do you even see how distasteful your comment is? I tell you, it is such trash comments from persons like you who induce people to reconsider their attitude towards Amhara. Thank God not all Amharas think like you. Your attitude is degenerate. Wake up brother. Get out of the deep shit you r in! Two big nations in East Africa have now split into 4 – just in 2 decades. If you think hatred does not result in demise of a nation- look around! U never gain from oromos hating amharas nor the vice versa.
    Long live to the oppressed people of the whole world!

  23. Assta B. Gettu on

    Gadaasa #21,

    Who are the freedom fighters? Didn’t you slaughter them in the city of Asmara – 17 of them – all of them were pure Amharas? Do you call the terrorist OLF members, including you, freedom fighters? Stealing chicken, goats, cows, sheep, and camels would never make the OLF members freedom fighters. We cannot call them freedom fighters for murdering the real freedom fighters, the 17 distinguished Amhara fighters. As usual, you will betray Ginbot 7 and the other opposition groups because you are greedy for power. You will never, ever, see the freedom of Oromia in your life time and in the life time of your children’s children.

    There is no such a thing as an Ethiopian empire; there is, of course, an Ethiopian ancient Christian kingdom, and you are amassing your evil forces against this Christian kingdom to replace it with your artificial form of government you call Islamic republic, and that is why you are getting too much money from Saudi Arabia and others, especially from Egypt. What ever money you have and whatever multitude of organizations you have influenced to accomplish your satanic plan – to divide the unity of Ethiopia, you will never succeed in your life time.

    You have not even been closer to achieving the power Meles has had, and you have already killed 17 Amharas, and when you get the power, you will probably kill over 27 million innocent Amharas and annihilate all Amharas, roots and branches, and that is your long term goal. Your short term goal is to persuade the Amharas to follow you and bring down the Woyanne government. After you have achieved your short tem goal, then you will start to hunt down the Amharas one by one. Turn right and do right!

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